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# Category Archives: Implicit Definition

# Elizabeth Warren’s Advice to Jerome Powell; Sentiment Without Intelligence

The Wall Street Journal of 7/25/2022 featured an article by Senator Elizabeth Warren: **“Jerome Powell’s Fed Pursues a Painful and Ineffective Inflation Cure.”** Because she lacks an **objective**, **normative,**** ****abstract,**** ****explanatory theory** and, thus, fails to understand the **functional interdependencies constituting** the **organic** economic process, particular arguments in her article are **a) **sometimes contaminated by psychopolitical wishful opinions, **b)** often** ignorantly one-sided** because she is unaware that some policies have double edges, **c)** sometimes **contradictory** of her other arguments, and **d)** in at least one case, **supercilious**.

E. Warren suffers from the same plight as **Thomas Picketty**. To satisfy her responsibility to the public, she needs to achieve a **scientific understanding **of the** organic economic process**; she needs to **get a “grip.”**

*We are at the heart of** **Picketty’s plight**:** **he has no clue** **of the needed grip on the grounds of the inequality in history. So,** **what else can he offer but a centralist solution, taxation, to history’s drunken careening.** (McShane, Philip, Picketty’s Plight, 53)*

*In equity (the basic expansion following the surplus expansion) should be directed to raising the standard of living of the whole society. It does not. And the reason why it does not is not the reason on which simple-minded moralists insist. They blame greed. But the prime cause is ignorance. The dynamics of surplus and basic expansion, surplus and basic incomes are not understood, not formulated, not taught….. [CWL 15, 82]*

# Abstraction in Macroeconomics; Classical and Statistical Laws

**Abstraction is enriching**. The relation of things to our senses must be **transcended by abstraction**; abstraction yields **explanatory concepts** **implicitly defined** by their **functional relations** to one another.

The** commonsense accounting** **relations** constituting historical Gross Domestic Product must be supplemented by the **abstract explanatory formulation** of Current Gross Domestic Functional Flows. All participants must have the **scientific guidance of a normative theory** in order to properly adapt their personal conduct to the principles and laws of the objective process. (Continue reading)

# The Leibnitz-Newtonian Shift of Context and Scientific Economics

Lonergan’s basic terms are **velocities**. There is a shift to **dynamics**. P. McShane called the creative shift from **Walrasian** **macrostatics** to **macroeconomic dynamics** the **Leibnitz-Newtonian shift**.

Please see under Key Notions the subtopic with the lengthy title: The Leibnitz-Newtonian Shift of Context and Scientific Economics; Basic Terms, Explanatory Conjugates, An adequate Level of Abstraction, No Premature Introduction of Boundary Conditions.

Taking into account past and (expected) future values does not constitute

Those familiar with elementary statics and dynamics (in physical mechanics) will appreciatethe creative key transition to dynamics.the shift in thinkinginvolved in passing from equilibrium analysis (of a suspended weight or a steel bridge)…to an analysis where attention is focused onsecond-order differential equations, on d^{2}θ/dt^{2}, d^{2}x/dt^{2}, d^{2}y/dt^{2}, on a range of related forces, central, friction, whatever. Particular boundary conditions, “past and future values” are relatively insignificant for the analysis. What is significant isthe Leibnitz-Newtonian shift of context. [McShane, 1980, 127]Note that the vertical axis of the Figure 24-7 below represents the accelerations: dQ’/Q’ and dQ”/Q”. Q’ and Q” represent velocities. The title underneath the Figure 24-7 fails to apply the proper superscript to surplus activity. Also, k-1 might be, for example 1.05-1 or .05 or 5% or a geometric increase period after period, while (1/r – 1)

Qmight be !/.95 – 1)100 or (1.05263-1)100 or (.05263)100 or 5.263 which would be a constant magnitude period after period and, therefore, a declining percent period after period. Thus the title indicating the Rate of Change of a percentage change._{1 }Lonergan’s basic terms are

velocities and their changes. There is a shift todynamics. P. McShane called the creative shift fromWalrasianmacrostaticstomacroeconomic dynamicstheLeibnitz-Newtonian shift. Again,

*In Lonergan’s circulation analysis, the basic terms are rates – rates of productive activities and rates of payments. The objective of the analysis is to discover the underlying intelligible and dynamic (accelerative) network of functional, mutually conditioning, and interdependent relationships of these rates to one another. [CWL 15 26-27 ftnt 27]*

# The Principle of Concomitance: The Foundation of Continuity, Equilibrium, and Explanatory Theory

**Contents**

**.1. Concomitance and Correlation in Macroeconomic Field theory****.2. Five Notes re Abstraction; Abstraction is Enriching****.3. Resume Focus on Concomitance and Correlation in Macroeconomic Field Theory**

**.1. Concomitance and Correlation in Macroeconomic Field theory**

**Concomitance **is, I would claim, **the key word** in Lonergan’s economic thinking. [Philip McShane, [Fusion 1, page 4 ftnt 10]

* All science begins from particular correlations, but the key discovery is the interdependence of the whole.…its basic terms are defined by their functional relations. [CWL 15, 53, 54, and 177]*

# A Closely Knit Frame of Reference; the Channels Account for Booms and Slumps, for Inflation and Deflation,

The **interconnected channels** of the **Diagram of Rates of Flow** provide a **closely knit frame of reference. The**** channels account for booms and slumps, inflation and deflation.**

*The method of circulation analysis resembles more the method of arithmetic than the method of botany. It involves a minimum of description and classification, a maximum of interconnections and functional relations. Perforce, some description and classification are necessary; but they are highly selective, and they contain the apparent arbitrariness inherent in all analysis. For analytic thinking uses classes based on similarity only as a springboard to reach terms defined by the correlations in which they stand. To take the arithmetic illustration, only a few of the integral numbers in the indefinite number series are classes derived from descriptive similarity; by definition, the whole series is a progression in which each successive term is a function of its predecessor. It is this procedure that gives arithmetic its endless possibilities of accurate deduction; and, as has been well argued, it is an essentially analogous procedure that underlies all effective theory. [CWL 21, 111]* Continue reading

# The Road Up is The Road Down; The Mechanism of Rising and Falling Prices

“The road up and the road down is one and the same. (Heraclitus)

ὁδὸς ἄνω κάτω μία καὶ ὡυτή

Archaeologists and scholars have not found the context of this isolated fragment of Heraclitus. What “road” was he referring to, and was he was speaking literally or figuratively? I simply like the statement as an introduction to the ups and downs of distinct price-quantity flows, whether in a pure cycle of expansion or in a distorted cycle of boom and corrective slump. Continue reading

# New Foundations in 30 Minutes

**New foundations** for a **new science of macroeconomics** are grounded in

- a scientific, dynamic heuristic
- the technique of implicit definition
- precise, purely relational, analytic distinctions between abstract fundamental terms and relations from which a superstructure of complete explanation may be deduced
- the relativistic, field-theoretic functional interrelations among interdependent, mutually-defining,
**explanatory functional flows**

# An Einsteinian Relativistic Context: Space and Time Become Space-Time; Price and Quantity become Price-Quantity; An Abstract Set of Invariant Explanatory Relations

**Contents**

**.I. Relations and Relativity in General****.II. Einstein’s Special Relativity and General Relativity****.III Lonergan’s Double-Circuited, Pretio-Quantital Relativity Theory****.IV. The Basic Price Spread; The Co-ordinated Relativity of Three Major Pretio-Quantital Flows and the Co-operative Relations Within Each Major Flow****.V. The Macroeconomic Field Theory Equations****.VI. Concerning Verification****.VII. Miscellaneous Selections****.VIII. Conclusion**

# Macroeconomic Field Theory’s Higher Laws Stand Above and Are Indifferent to the Endless Complexity Within the Exchange Solution

**Part I – The Exchange Solution’s Complexity and Change:**

The **exchange s****olution** stands above and is **indifferent to endless complexity and endless change**; it **stands on a level above** **all** **particular products** and **all** **particular modes of production**.